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Eighty one years ago W. S. Wallace commented on the first history of North America:  He was correct that the history was created by people speaking Old Norse.

But the educators and publishers of the New World History over whelmed the continued research of the first history.

W. S. Wallace
The Canadian Historical Review
University of Toronto Press
Volume 20, Number 1, March 1939
pp. 8-16

THE LITERATURE RELATING TO THE NORSE VOYAGES TO AMERICA OR amere layman to invade the highly controversial field of the Norse voyages to America in the middle ages may smack of  temerity. The subjectis so complex that it involves a knowledgeof Old Norse literature, medieval cosmography and navigation ,archaeology, anthropology, zoology, botany, and climatology ;and the present writer must disclaim anything but the most superficial acquaintance with any of those branches of knowledge. But the bibliographer has always a useful purpose to serve; and a survey of the literature relating to the Norse voyages to America may not now be without value, especially when interest in the subject has bee nrevived by the recent discovery of what seem to be Viking weapons near Beardmore in northern Ontario, and their acquisition by the Royal Ontario Museum, as described by Professor Currelly in the preceding paper. If, in the courseof this bibliographical survey,the writer attempts to pass judgment on the validity of some of the contributions made to the subject, it must be remembered that even in a court of law a simple juryman is often called upon to assess the value of the evidence of expert witnesses. Our knowledge of the Norse voyages to Americ are stsprimarily on (1) the detailed narratives of two apparently independent Icelandic sagas, known as the Sagaof Eric the Red and the Flatey book,committed to writing many years after the events they purport to describe;(2) a reference to Vinlandin Adam of Bremen's Description sularurnaquilonis,written before 1070, but not printedu ntil 115015; and (8) several references to Vinland, Maryland , and "Newland" in Icelandic and Norwegian annals. This evidence places, and has placed for a longtime,beyond any reasonable doubt the fact that the Norsemen found their way to the shores of the North American continent about the year 1000, and continued to visit it for about three and a half centuries. But about thedetail sof thesevoyages the widest diversity of opinion has prevailed. There are those who regard the sagas as in large part mythical, and admit no more th an the bare fact of the voyages themselves; and  there are those who treat the sagas as if they were actual ship's logs. Among he latter, there are those who have identified Vinland with places in the north-eastern coast of North America as far apart as Hamilton inlet in Labrador and Long Island sound off New York; those who have identified the "Sara- LITERATURE RELATING TO THE NORSE VOYAGES TO AMERICA 9 lings" or natives of the sagasas Indians or as Eskimo; and those who have argued that the "wine-berries" of the sagas were grapes or cranberries. The imagination and in genuity displayed by each subsequent comment tor  n the sagas has had, when one considers the divergent results obtained, almost a humorous side. Finally, attempts have been made to prove the existencein North America (apart from Greenland) of archaeological remains of the Norse visits. Of these only one, the Runic inscription found in 1028 on the island of Kingitors book in Baffin bay, and now lodged in the National Museum in Copenhagen.has, so far as I know, been universally accepted as genuine. Others, suchas the inscription on the Dighton Rock or the Rhode Island watch-tower to which Longfellow had referencein his ballad "The skeleton in armour," have been conclusivelyproved to have no connection with the Norsemen. Still others, such as the so-called Kensington runestone found in Minnesota and the Beardmore sword found in northern Ontario, are still the subjectsof controversy. A knowledgeof the Norse voyagesto America must have been common property among the people of Iceland and Norway in the middle ages, and (as we have seen) they were known to a German writer in the eleventh century. The fact that in 1121 Eric Gnupssonwas appointed by Pope Paschal II "bishop of Greenlandand Vinland in partibusinfidelium," and went in search of Vinland, has suggestedthat there may be documentsin the archives of the Vatican which might throw light on the Norse voyages to America; but no such documents have been found. It would seemprobable that someknowledgeof the Norse visits to America must have percolatedthrough to southernEurope in the middle ages;but, if so, such knowledge must have been lost and forgotten. It appearsthat when ChristopherColumbusand John Cabot set out on their epoch-makingvoyages,they knew little or nothing of the bold mariners who had preceded them. Even Adam of Bremen's brief description of Vinland was not printed until a century later. The first printed bookgiving an accountof the Norsevoyages to America was the Historia Vinlandiae Antiquae,publishedin Latin in 17015 by Thormod Torfaeus,an Icelander who was born in 1686 and died in Norway in 1710, and who actually had in his possession the Flatey book. Torfaeusattempted only a summary of the Norse sagas,and did not reproducethem...



The LENAPE knew Virus WARFARE.
42. Well-Praised was chief;
        he fought at the south.  
(HE STOPPED DESOTO)  The Dot above the hilt is small pox from DeSoto to LENAPE.
42. Wulakeningus sakimanep shawanipalat.
43. He fought in the land of the Talega and Koweta.
43. Otaliwako akowetako ashkipalliton.
44. White-Otter was chief; a friend of the Talamatans.
44. Wapagamoshki sakimanep lamatanitis.
45. White-Horn was chief; he went to the Talega,  WHITE-HORN CARRIED THE SMALL POX TO THE LAND BEFORE THE MOUTINS.
45. Wapashum sakimanep talegawunkik.
46. To the Hilini, to the Shawnees, to the Kanawhas.  TO THE ILLINIOIS, TO THE SHAWNEES(OHIO) AND TO THE KANAWHAS (KENTUCKY) -- Look at the small box dots.
DeSoto's smallpox and other viruses made America an underpopulated NEW WORLD for the English--who were tolerant of the European viruses.  Those viruses began to kill again when the English landed.


What is THAT?

Allen C. Guelzo, in the Great Course “Making History” wrote,

“History wants to use the kind of evidence that can be verified.”

He wrote the historians should ask two questions.

Q1 What is that?

Q2 Where did THAT come from.)?

Prof. Guelzo may be naive.  He does NOT describe Historian behavior.

My experience is that Historians teach what they were taught.  That may be one reason that the "first" historians could profoundly distort History.

I have two decades of trying, multiple times, to encourge historians to “Look at THAT.”  

I have many posts of evidence to show that nearly all Historians do NOT ask or answer Prof Guelzso’s first question.

Here is a single example of a “THAT,” which has not been questioned by most historians.

Why  do we have (6) Niorse names of Gods on our calendars and only one name of a Roman God?

Calendar  Norse                 Meaning
 Day          God    
 Sun          Sol (Sól, Sunna)   Goddess,
                                                of the sun
Mon            Mani                    Moon
Tues            Tyr (Týr …Teu)  war, justice in
Wednes    Othinn, Votan, …   Goddess  Æsir
                 Woden, Wodin     wisdom, war,
                                                magic, poetry,
                                                 and death
Thurs         Thor (þórr...)         protection,
Fri             Fria, Frige,              'to love'

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday (Six days) are named for Norse Gods.

Saturday is named for a Romn God, Saturn.

What (why) is THAT?

"THAT" is somehow the calendar on every wall honors the names of six Norse Gods.

Do you know any Historian, who has asked the FIRST Question?


Every day Historians look at, and speak about, "evidence that can be verified."




Lenape Lands
I began my quest for the LENAPE History by a process that I now call “serendipity.”  “Making pleasant and unexpected discoveries entirely by chance.” 
At Oklahoma State University about 1971 I was given an assignment to help State Extension Agents in ten prairie states deal with “Feedlot Waste Management.” 
As I traveled into each state I would buy and read a book about the state.   When I visited in Nebraska, I had little spare time throughout most of the visit.  As my wife and I departed the University of Nebraska bookstore, I saw a book entitled
Ancient Pioneers, Early Early Connections.  I thought the book was about the pioneer couple, who were featured as the mascots of the Nebrasa sport teams.

A string of decisions led to my being in the University of Nebraska bookstore.  But those decisions were, each one, “entirely by chance.”  They had no relation to the “Ancient Pioneers” book, which I bought.
Astri A. Stromsted wrote a book about ancient Norse pioneers.
I was reading the book as my wife drove.
I came across another discovery.  Four thousand Norse oeople vanished from Greenland.  No one knew where they went. 
I remember exclaiming. “I am 52 years old.   I read history books all my life.  Why is it that I never heard of the 4.000 people, who vanished from Greenland?”
At home I told my family about the 4,000 people, who  varnished.  I told them that, when I retire, I would find out where the 4000 people went.  4,000 people cannot vanish with out leaving a record.”

But I still had thirteen years to make a living.  I put the book references into my Commodore 64 computer.  I added references to the VIKING and the RED MAN.
Then I forgot the Ancient Pioneers.
Then I, a man who should have been settled  for the rest og hid life, moved at least eight  times into four states. I changed computer systems three times.
Afer a year into retirement, I told my daughter, “I do not know what to do with myself.”  She said, “Dad, remember that book you were going to write?”

I searched my computer’s memory for “Ancient Pioneers”.
The Ancient Pioneers data was an unexpected find.



Dr. Myron Paine
Feb 4, 2020
Today I am reflecting on two decades of research about places I call LENAPE LANDS.
Recently I summarized what I think are facts about the LENAPE LANDS.  Here are those facts:
We learned a colonial history, which is not accurate.
We should teach a more accurate paradigm.
1. There was a Pan-North Atlantic Culture, which spoke Old Norse, 4,500  ya.
2. In the 11 to the 15th centuries, the Lenape composed a history, which still exists.
3. The Catholic religion came to North America during the 12th century.
4. The Catholics in America called themselves Lenape, which means “Abide with the pure.”
5.  The Lenape History tells about a migration from Greenland to New Jersey, via the Dakotas
6. When the English invaded, most people in eastern North America spoke Old Norse.
7. Colonial leaders knew the LENAPE spoke Old Norse and had archaic Christian traditions.
8. The Protestants, who came to America, suppressed Lenape by omitting them from the printing presses.
I am writing this history to encourage educators to challenge their students to verify the fact that when the English invaded, most Americans were Catholics, who spoke Old Norse.  If educators do nothing, early history in America will remain suppressed.
This will be a story about my research about the Lenape history.  The LENAPE HISTORY appears to have been compiled about the time of the Little Ice Age.  But the LENAPE HISTORIANS, who compiled the LENAPE History,  appear to have started the LENAPE History about “the lands we left behind,” Which is Greenland.